It reflects a taken-for-granted-world image which prioritises nation-states as the basic units of humanity. GaWC is part of a research programme which is dedicated to overcoming embedded statism.
This section is divided into four parts which develop an argument from quite abstract considerations through to specific measurement questions.
Part two introduces Loughborough University's Global Observatory which was set up as a web site https://apagetsic.info/7/christian-man-4827.php provide data alternatives to counter the inherent bias in the usual data sources.
Hence the site's logo slogan: Only the basic framework of the Observatory has been put in place and, given the potential size of the undertaking, moving forward has required concentrating research efforts.